Work safety

1. Basic ideas: Who must provide the conditions for safe work

The State provides the following:

The employer must provide the safe conditions for all its employees which do not endanger their employees health.The method for safe conditions are defined by the employer.

The responsibility of employer to make sure, his employees can read all safety rules in their

own language.

The keeping of the safety rules are supervised by the government organizations.

The safety rules are defined in a way that it provides protection for all its employees.

This law ensures the interest protection of all people concerned,and the rights and duties of all  employees.

Employees and employers must cooperate

The personal data’s safety and security must be protected – only could be used for statistical purposes.

The professional work safety activities must be checked by professional people.

2:  The States’ tasks in reference to work safety:

Directing work safety and providing work safety services, organizing work safety as well

Develop nationwide program

Basic demands , rights,and duties must be defined

Work safety rules requirements must be kept and helped

Education and raising minors

Develop and maintain Work Safety information system
The State participates in the work of work safety activities of international organizations

Publishing a book of rules and regulations

Search and development ,information, and cooperating in further training

Help and assist the work safety rules

3: Work Safety Rules of creating jobs

    Making sure all work safety conditions have met


Work Safety conditions must be valid

Consider all Ergonomic conditions

If and when any of the employees have disability impairment,the environment must be changed to meet the special need of the employees

The use of technology must be in writing

Previous test or examination and permit must be obtained for all Work Safety condition rules regulations

The effective work safety conditions must be met

4: Which ones are the work safety objective conditions:

Security revision must be performed for the dangoerous technology

The appropriate quality drinking water ,dressing code,health care , rest and warmup possibilities must be provided

Take care of order,cleanliness, sewage,garbage etc…all must be taken care of

Provide alarm systems,and signal systems

Provide enough space

Prevent falling accidents

Appropriate lights

Noise, and vibration,dust and chemical materials, rays can not harm the employer

Air and climate must be ensured and provided

Protection against severe  weather

Exit, emergeny exit

Separate smoking areas

5.) Work protection concerning  Technical Process

  People’s health in the area can not be endangered

  Material moving with the appropriate equipment

  All safety equipment must be provided by employer

  Appropriate  equipment to fight against fires,and have fire alarm

  In case of danger the work must cease

  Practice your escape and plan your escape route

  Prepare escape plans, appoint the right people

  Health aid and first aid conditions

  6; Personal conditions of safe work

   The employee can only be employed where:

$1-      has the right qualities

$1-      will not influence employees health,and personal safety

$1-      It does not endanger his/ hers health and their future children’s

$1-      a single, lonely employee is not allowed to work alone

$1-      any dangerous work could be done only be appropriately trained employee

7;Rights and duties of employers and employees

       The employer : has to hire  a professional person to provide all work safety professional activities and : has to give all necessary instructions for employees on a timely basis

·         He also has to make sure that the surroundings meet the requirements

·         Has to provide all tools for employees

·         Prior to introducing new technology he has to provide proper training

·         Read new reports, and stop work

·         Must provide appropriate work safety equipment,and appropriate usage

·         Training

The employee: He can only go to work in a stable and workeable condition

$1·         He has to make sure all his tools are in safe condition,and use them appropriately

$1·         His individual work safety equipment must be used appropriately

$1·         Wear the appropriate attire

$1·         Learn all necessary skills and knowledge

$1·         Attend the required medical exams

$1·         Inappropriate conditions should be terminated by him

$1·         Report all accidents and wounds immediately

8.) Teendők munkabalesetek, foglalkozási megbetegedések esetén:

      What to do in case of work accidents and sickness resulting from work:

·         Report and examine

·         Must be written down:name of wounded person,birth date,time of accident,mothers’ name

·         Work accident: Ministry of Labour, sickness: People’s well being Ministry

·         Find the causes, and must act to prevent further incidents

·         Representative of Work Safety must participate int he official examination of the case

·         After 3 years, no one is required to report it.


9; How does the work safety representation works ?

       Those who has the right to be represented, have pick a   representative from  among themselves, only if and when the number of employees is over 10 people.

Work Safety representatives ,if here are 3 of them, create a work safety committee

When the committe has a meeting, the employer must attent

The Work Safety Representative

$1·         Could enter the workplace during worktime

$1·         He could ask for information from the employer

$1·         He could initiate the necessary steps

$1·         He could participate in the accident investigations

$1·         He could create a workplace program

$1·         Employer must provide conditions so the representative could really represent the employees’ interests

$1·         The work safety representative must practice his rights and no disadvantage could come to him because of his representative status.


10; Interpret the following concepts:

                Accident: the external effect that happens once to the Human Body, which, independently from the victim effected him within a short period of time either immediately or within a  short period of time, causing poisonous or other health damages, or death.

Creation: new plant, workplace is created, or renewal of the already existing ones,or re-creating one,or adding a new machine, regardless whether they will use it for production purposes or not.

Work accident: the accident,which happened to the employee during the time of his work. The accident happens in connection to the accident. Accidents going from home to work,or back are not considered work accidents.

Work place:  all places, either closed or open, where employees are present for the purpose of work or in reference to work .

Employee: A person who works within the framework of organized work.

Start up of a plant: The process,during which the owner makes sure that the given building , workplace, technology satisfies the demand for workplace safety rules, regulations and requirements.

Employer:  The one employing the employee to perform a job. Those who do not employ employees, are called individual entrepreneur.

Organized work performance: 
Employed employee,or student working at school,or working for penal institutions,armed forces,or social worker or working for the fire department, -they are all employees on way or another.

Restart: Such an equipment,technology, which could be restarted, after disconnecting it,which was not in use for over 30 days,or was completely dis-assembled.

: the location, equipment,work process,technology,where the employees safety without the proper equipment, could be in danger.

Dangerous material:all materials,which could be dangerous, because of its chemical or biological effects, explosive, oxidizer,flammable,radiant, poisonous,caustic,stimulating,infective, mutagen, or harmful to the future children of the employees – all of these factors which could harm or endangers the employees.

1.) Physiological effects of electric current:

       The electric current, which flowing through the human body / for a defined period of time / with the probability of 99,5% will not cause a ventricular sickness. This is valid  between 0,03  s <t<3 s .

It feels real uncomfortable between 0,25 W sec and  deadly if the body  receives 50W energy.

The human body  is ohm natured. The first part is made of the human tissue with body wetness.The resistance of this part is 200 to 300 ohm. The second part is made of the external  human skin in which case the resistance depends from the momentary resistance of the skin.

Factors influencing the resistance of the human body.The electric current’s effects for the human body is influenced by the following: greatness of the electric current, length of time, direction, power’s frequency, resistance of the human body, and the individual’s spiritual and physical state.

The basis of the rules, regulations is founded on the concept  that electric shock accident can not cause death. The permanent current’s  greatest value is below the limit of the power which causes ventricular levitation which is  50 mA ue= Ie   This is called limit tension, and this is the value of the permanent limit of current, not greater than 100 Hz in case of alternating current, which has to be endured permanently.

In case of permanent DC current UL = 120 V, 100- 1,000 Hz frequency and dashed  alternating current,

and dashed DC current the UL= 50 to 120 V.

How can a power shock happen:

a.) phase to ground touch

b.) phase to phase touch

c.) error voltage bridging

d.) step-voltage bridging


2.) First Aid’s elementary tasks:

The wounded person must be rescued from the current’s capture. Small current, under 1,000 Volt the wounded person must be pulled from the current’s hold with a piece of dry clothes, or with woodstick, or a shovel handle, whatever etc… In case of over 1,000 Volts only a professional could do the rescue with an insulated rod. First Aid starts only after the diagnosis has been reached.

If the wounded person is conscious, we must keep him/ her under constant surveillance.If the wounded person is un-conscious,but he/ she is breathing,and the blood circulates,leave him/her lying there,not necessary to make him/her conscious, just call an ambulance.

If the person does not breathe, and there is no blood circulation, artificial breathing and heart massage is needed.


3.) Small current and large current equipments’ important standards:

Small current equipments:

Those equipments which are not under 1,000 V :

Chapter 1.: General rules and regulations. The satisfaction of security regulations is mandatory even if they are not individually listed within the standard series of definite rules and regulations.

Capter 2: Definition of concept.

Accessibility without aid: accessible  from ground, from floor,and from stands. Disconnecting: from supply system in each and every corner of the electric system.

Chapter 3: Provides general rules, requirements for safety directions: put up signs to avoid dangerous touching, power limitations etc..

Chapter 4: electric comsumption of equipments, electric machines

Chapter 5: Safety requirements of lighting equipments

Chapter 6: Safety rules for  Distribution of electricity, and measurement .

Chapter 7: Requirements of cables, wires

Chapter 8: Protective tubes, leadchannels, and additional equipments

High voltage equipments:

Greater than 1.000 Volts’ equipments. The Theoritical difference is that when it comes to disconnecting,a visible departure if disconnestion is needed,and one should know, that the parts under electric current are dangerous, and could cause electric shock,but also there is a danger for the current to overarch – there is an additional danger of arcing ! So one should NOT go near it either.

4.) Definition of touchprotection powervoltage:

     The danger of the electric shock is defined by the greatness of electric power flowing through the human body.Our starting point is that the resistance of the human body,using the worst scenario how much current needs timed with 1,000 to create certain physiological effects. The current effecting the human body is : Ue=Ie xRe= 50 x 10-3x1x103 = 50 V  This is the current limit.

5.) Modes of touchprotection:

Active: if the touching current exceeds the limit,then it automatically disconnects the defective equipment. Active methods: / signal /

defensive grounding VF

zeroing NU

DC potential EPH

current protection connection


Passive:the current always must be kept on a non-dangerous level, disconnection is not necessary.

Passive methods: / signal /

Dwarf power, TF

protective separation VE

6: Touchprotection departments

0. Toucprotection dept.: The defense against electric shock is based on insulation

1.) Defensive Department: Defense is NOT only based on insulation, but on several additional protective defenses as well.The body of the product is provided with a gadget to which the electric networks’ protection cable could be connected to. Above 5 KW a 3 phase consumer.

2.)Basic insulation + double insulation.

3.)  The defense is based on dwarf current,they do not produce larger current than the feed current.

3B.) Nor the current and neither the actual current is not greater in case of alternating current than 25 Volts, and in case of DC current its only 60 Volts.

3.C.) The named current’s real current is not greater than 12 Volts eá 30 Volts.

7.) What do we call protected / IP, CEE /

Its important to know for the user, about the products,how much is the product protected against outside / external effects. This  quality of the product is called „protected „ quality. The grade of this „ protected quality „ appears on a data tablet, and user makes his decision about the usability degree of the product.

IP = industrial products protected quality. This is followed by a 2 digit number.The first number refers to the protected quality of different parts of the human body, and the second number refers to the protected quality of the degree of the resistance against water.  CEE = refers to the protected degree of domestic products. They are referred to by pictures and not numbers.The human finger is not even marked,because this refers to its defense against intrusion. The defense against water intrusion is referred to by a drop of water, and the defense against dust is referred to by a wirefilter picture.

Material storage ,shipping, and moving

1.) R-S-T process characterization

The production and distribution and usage of materials, means moving these materials around. In a given time, an object which is in a P position, could be moved into this position by 3 different methods. Within a  short period of time could be moved generally in a vertical move, within a long period of time could be moved horizontally and  „S” shipping in reference to time, it does not move and does not change its position.





2. Manual Material handling, and moving  without a support

Oldest and simplest way:

Basic movements:

Grabbing the material, the material’s mass should not exceed the lifting person’s physical strength

Lifting the material: the spine should not be over exerted

Moving the material

Putting down the weight, with a stable support

Possible harm:

Mechanical: protective gloves, wristbands

Heat: protective gloves, asbestos boots

chemical: rubber gloves, and rubber boots


3.) Simply device used for manual moving  

3 groups:

a.) using the simple mechanical theories:  lever, roller, suction cups

b.) using simple manual tools: handle: handcart, trolley, wheelbarrow, 2 wheeled trolley, four wheeled trolley, handcart with a drawbar, handcart without a drawbar, and a lift truck.

c.)  Manually operated lifting equipments,based ont he mechanical and hydraulical  theories, to lift big masses of weight,where a person must have 150N power

4.) Main equipments of mechanized material movings:

1; Daru: terhet függőlegesen, nem vezetősínek között térben mozgatja. Rakodó, kiszolgáló, különleges

1:Cranes.Its weight is moved vertically,not between tracks,special service and

 Lifting element, suspensory element,steelwire. Hook:forged. Brakesystem. Safety and security equipments:endstop switches,stop buffers,overload inhibitors,sound, signal equipments.

2: Machine propulsioned trolleys, transporter,towing equipment,lifting and special

3: Public vehicles: toggle trucks,self loading trucks,

4: lifts

5: Special explosives handling and storage

Fire and explosive materials:   

On public transportation roads,must be shipped in perfectly closed containers

The opening must face upwards

Should be protected against overturns

Must wear the sign „ Flammable „

Self igniting materials are forbidden to be stored together with flammable materials

Poisonous and Caustic Materials:

Larger than 2 Liters containers should only be moved within a carrying tray

The container bottle should only be handled by holding its bottom

When transfusing from one bottle to another,it is forbidden to suck it by mouth

and also forbidden to place it under pressure or heating it

You can not keep food, or drinks near anything marked „ POISON „

Poison can only be kept within a poison cupboard with a strong wall

Gas-tanks must be stored under 125 – 150 bar pressures

These gas-tanks must be tied down, so they wont hit against each other

These gas-tanks must be shipped with special safety caps, disconnected reducators.

Oxygen tanks can not be touched with oily hands.

Safe operating of machines

1: Dangerous mechanical facts:


Rotary movement:

a.) self revolving rotary parts, axes, fan blades, grinding discs

b.) machine parts turning into themselves ( gears,drivebelt,dial and those powers that stand up against the nonmoving parts, such as powers of

pressure power,and grinding power )

Progressive and alternative movements : the moving part is tied to a constraint direction. Nearing movements, such as jackhammer heads.

Simple motions , the danger comes from the shape of the parts.

Rotating and progressive motions.

Swinging motions:entry danger

Touching with the workpiece

Workipiece might fly out

Machine parts might fly out

2: Protective Equipment:

When creating the defense, one should consider the machine construction, and the different dangers from materials being used

a: Protective cover: if the dangerous area must not be reached, fixed protective cover,locked protective cover,automatic cover, distance keeping cover, adjustable protective cover

b: Safety disconnect equipment

c:  two handed control  / protective cover is coplicated to use

d: overrun inhibitor

e: Mechanical latch  / addition

f: protective table

g: feeder and transmitting equipment

3: Safety technique of Whetting

The greatest danger is rock blast. The most important rules in changing whetting discs are the

following:  On  the whetting disc, they have placed a factory label, stating the strength test.

The drive down dial is one third of the diameter of the whet disc

Crust paper must be used

It is forbidden to enlarge the drillhole afterwards

Protective screen against splinters

Never use reject whetting discs

The disc must be balanced


The lead – ruler must be paralleled with the saw blade,otherwise its not an exact work

When stopping, it is forbidden to stop with a piece of wood

The workpiece recoil is inhibited by a  cleaving wedge



Fire Protection

1; Fire Protection Basic Knowledge

Danger zone: in the room,or on the outside area, with all of its materials,machines and equipments, from fire protection point of view.

Free outside area: could not be defined as room,where production processes are taking place. Room: bordered by walls,with it own independent air room.

Building: separated from the outside area by outside structures wholly or partially. Works of Art: structure which is not considered a building.

Facility: standing on a plot, a sum of buildings and outside areas.

2: Fire protection departments and classification:

„A’” Intensifiably dangerous flammable  and explosive materials, any material which in any state, shape or form is suitable for intensified fire. For example: aceton, or benzol.

„B” Dangerous flammable and explosive material- for example the DUST which can make a mixture of flammable and explosive mix with the air.

„C” Flammable, - solid ignition temperature  at most is  300 Celsius, liquid explosive temperature not greater than 50 Celsius, gas, does not burn, but  it feeds the burning.

„D” Moderately flammable – solid ignition temperature is greater than 300 Celsius, solid ignition temperature is greater than 150 Celsius

„E” Not flammable

3: Fire fighting’s basic principles and tools:

Effects of water: cooling, asphyxiant, beater, interrupt the flame, using pulverizer rays

Foam materials: for  flammable liquids / mechanical foam, liquid and air material mixtures

chemical foam / CO2 in bubbles

Gas fire extinguishers, coal-tetrachloride, metil-bromid, BCF halon


1: Requirement for Workplace Air standards:

The human body produces heat, and transmits it into its sourrandings. This transmission could happen by  heat conduction or by heat flow, or heat rays. The air temperature and humidity its speed of flow and the heat omission we call climate factors. The climate factor shows whether the worker emitted his heat under favorable circumstances or not. Effective temperature shows that the worker emitted his temperature under favorable circumstances. In order to define this, one must use the YAGLOU nomogramm. If the air speed is not zero, the corrected effective temperature must be considered. Ventillation is important due to poisonous materials.

2:Ventillation and heating systems:

Task: to provide the workplace with clear air and good heating systems. The fresh air must be directed into the workplace area. This is done with ventillators,or with the help of wind. The ventillation could be either general ventillation, or local ventillation. Could be achieved either with fresh air, or re-routed air, in this case they must have 10 % of fresh air.

Heating systems: to achieve the appropriate temperature.In public institutions: central heating.With hot air, or steam, or air. In case of using air, must be the same as the ventillation system. Hot water system:in a boiler, between the line and the boiler it is forbidden to use a blockage system.


1: Definition of Noise, Characteristics, Harmful effects against Health:

Voice performance: emitted energy W.into space within a given period of time.

Intensity: The value of the previous one

Voice pressure: starting from the source of voice,the flexibly changing shape coming through the air P.

Voice pressure must be measured, our ear picks up on the same thing. The difference of level must be added to a fixed value ( w2 or I2 ) which is the base level value, and this is w0= 10 – 12 W. This is the hearing treshold. Referring to the voicepressure, p0=20 x 6Pa.

The damaging effect of noise:

for hearing

vegetative nerv system

work performance

Possibilities to lower the the noise level:

technical possibilities

work organizer decisions, individual safety equipment

2: Vibration definition, and its effects

Vibration could be defined like this, a particle or a surface could move around a defined place.This move could be periodic or irregular, constant or periodic.In some cases the creation of vibration is necessary for the technology. ( vibrators, classifications ). In other cases  the moving machinery has a phenomena ( the unbalanced rotating parts ) The vibration  effects the body directly or indirectly,It effects the whole body,or just part of it. Locally effective vibration. The low frequency vibration effects the bones, and the joints, higher frequency vibrations attack the blood circulations – which generally effects the upper limbs.Vibration effecting the entire body usually appears with a locally noticeable vibration effect.

Lighting, color dynamics

1: Light and vision lighting technical base concepts

Vision is receiving the worlds’ light stimulus. The eyeball is a sphere, its first and last pole is connected by the eye axial.The eyeball’s external  shell is the sclera, and in the back is the cornea. The middle shell is the choroid, and the  back part is the iris. The internal shell is the retina, this is capable to receive the light, sense it, and changes it into stimulus. The refraction is measured in dioptries.

Base concepts of lighting tecniques: The extreme light conditions cause early tiredness, loss of attention and headaches , due to extreme stress  by over-use of the eyes.

The natural and artificial lighting’s optimal combination we must achieve the  best visible conditions.The ingredients of visibility: when examining the the visibility, the following are playing a part: of the object: its size,  its  contrast, time, and visibilty distance. Of the lighting: its density,direct and indirect mirage, light’s direction, color rendering.

Object’s characteristics: size, contrast.

Capabilities of the eye: which are significant in this field: sharpness of visibility, accommodations, the  eye’s capacity to adjust itself to different distances, adaptation, and adapting to different levels of light.

2: Characteristics of Light Techniques

Strength of light: a light source light ray’s average value in a certain light angle. Its signal: I.

Light: a flux by light, per  Illuminated surface unit. Its signal is  „E” When  chosing the The lighting level one must decide  the : best time / activity whether is one or two shifts, and people’s age.

Light density: the lighting’ surface in reference to the angle of visibility, and its strength. Its signal is „ L”  Mirage: could be direct or indirect,or mirrored, and could be annoying and distructing as well.

Shadowyness, and directon of light: its useful for the employee if light is coming from the left. Color of light and color rendering: All object colors appearing in daylight, its their natural color.

Space evenness.

Work Safety

More economical, save energy

Estetic appearance

3: Natural and artificial lighting of premises

Natural: to save energy. Let as much of sunlight as possible unto the work project. Enlarging the windows, means more light and more heat coming in.The most widely used is the side- windows, but they use more and more windows on top and roof areas as well.

Artifical: goal is to improve light conditions.The parameters defining the good lighting conditions: adaptive light density, mirage, size of objects,contrast situation,and available time. Good lighting technique characteristics: lighting, density, mirage, direction of light, light colors. Planning the lighting equipments, Must be defined:  parameters of lighting techniques, lighting system, method of lighting, usable light sources, forming light and eletric network. The placement of equipment could be symmetric, or assimmetryc.

4: Effects of colors for humans:

Colors define the mood of the premises. Warm colors: greater rooms are made to look smaller. Cold colors: they enlarge smaller rooms.Tall rooms could be made look proportioned if the ceiling us painted dark  but not cold color is used. Long room could be make to look shorter of we add warm color to the door.

Welding , soldering, and other thermical techniques

1: Dangers of  welding,cutting, and other thermical techniques

Main dangers and their causes:

„ Fire and explosiveness „  gas stored under great pressure in gastanks / C

2H2, H2, oxygen under great pressure, not regulated,unchecked gas forming,explosive mix possibility welding pistol with open flames, back-burning, back exploding, great temperatured metal and slag. Harmful rays,electric arc light effect, ultraviolet and infrared rays, electromagnetic and other great energy rays.” Harmful physiological effects „ metalsteam inhalation, metaldust inhalation,ozone inhalation, poisonous gases inhalation, electric shock,heateffect burden, phsical burden,pyhsical overburden.

„Danger of drowning,”  live flames,and its oxygen sucktion effect, sucked out air, CO, CO2 athmosphere creation,  „ Other dangers „ mechanical wounds resulting from material handling, burning wounds, from metal and slag equipments erratic operations.

Pressure holding equipments

1: Concepts referring to pressure holding containers

Steamboiler: greater than 1 bar pressure creating steam boiler equipment.

Hot water boiler, 388  K > greater temperature water to be heated equipment

Hot water boiler:  equipment  to make not greater than 388 K temperatured water

Chemical filled boiler: not water and not steam either.

Heated pressure holder container: the equipment that is exposed to burnedproducts, or chemical reaction products,or heated by electricity, under greater than 1 bar pressure.

Pressure holder container, closed or closable equipment,which is not exposed to heat, and inside the pressure is 1,7 Bar . Pressure holder system: pressure holder containers group contacted to each other.

2: Danger degree indicator

    The equipments  could be  classified  into  small,medium, and large classes. The calculation of Y danger level indicator: Y= Vpk (C + ft + t ) where

V = is the container’s volume given in m3

p= the container’s pressure in bars

K= korrosion value

c= the charge’s physical state value

f= Degree of  flammability danger

t= degree of poisonous level

small danger = 4<Y  100

Medium danger =100 < 1000

$1·         Great danger=Y  >10,000

3:Pressure holder containers factory and safety equipments

The equipments  could be classified into  small,medium, and large classes. Y is the measurement and indicator for danger .

This is how we calculate it: Y= Vpk ( C+f+t) where

V: volume of container in M3

p:permitted pressure of container in bar

k: korrosion value

c: physical condition of object

f: danger level of flammability

t: factor of poisonous effect

Small danger: 4<Y 100

Medium 100 < Y 10000

Large: Y> 10000

3: Pressure holding containers, plant and security parts

Plant parts, loading , emptying,closing, controll,inspection parts, pressure and temperature limitors,security alarm systems

Pressure limitors,
Factory containers: loaders, emptyers,closers,controllers, pressure and temperature limitors, safety signaling equipments.

Pressure limitors, overload safety walve, tearing, tearing dial,safety stand,suction walve,explosive door.Temperature limitors: melting dial, melting cork. Safety signal equipment: Pressure gauge, liquid  level gauge.

4: Supervision of  Pressureproof containers,official processes

Official processes in reference to equipments:

Manufacture permit processes

Manufacturing processes

Manufacturing permit processes

Process in case of explosion and wounds

Usage permit is  an integral part of the machine book. Validity: small danger of pressure proof containers, 6 years – great danger of pressure proof containers, 3 years.


5: Pressure proof containers usage rules,regulations

Okmányok: a hatóság által hitelesített gépkönyv, használati engedély, berendezésre felszerelt hatóság által hitelesített adattábla.

Documents: validated machine book by the appropriate authorities, permit to use  it, authorized official data tablet fixed on the outside of the equipment

Assigned the responsible person
Verification certificate

Handling instructions on a visible place

Usage: prior to usage, verify appropriate running mode       

Upload system

In case of heating: keep the appropriate start process

Increasing the pressure, make sure its not harmful

maintenance, cleaning

6: Inspection of Pressure Proof containers, pressure test

Most important and repetitive authorized official tests

Structural exam, / geometrics, supervise surfaces

Pressure test: density test ont he pressurized surface,make sure shape does not change permanently,

PB – test pressure

pe – permitted pressure

Rm20 , permitted pressure on 20 Celsius

Rmt- permitted currency ont he planned temperature

Pressure test is usually done with water

Safety test – acceptance tes, certification

7: Repairing pressure proof containers

One can only do repair jobs inside it, with entry permit, / name,time,location,technology /

Most important conditions of entry permit:

Absolute exclusion of feed

exclusion of energy supply

Load must be cleaned out completely

appropriate cleaning, cooling

appropriate supervision

process: repair technology

Repair permit, entry permit


Supervision, exams

Permit to use it